Today's Wall Street Journal has a refreshing interview with Dr. Susan Desmond-Hellmann, who is chancellor of the University of California, San Francisco, and a former drug industry research scientist. The piece begins with an introduction that says, "Many universities are wringing their hands over the increasing coziness of medical schools and their corporate partners. Susan Desmond-Hellmann ... has no such qualms."
As the introduction notes, "potential conflicts of interest are a growing concern at many schools." That's a problem. What matters are not "potential" conflicts of interest but actual conflicts that result in a researcher or clinician putting his or her own self interest over the interests of the patients whose well-being they manage.
Unfortunately, the fear of being branded with a scarlet letter "I" -- for industry ties -- has led far too many universities, scientists, and clinicians to pass up opportunities to collaborate with the drug and medical device industries in ways that might have redounded to the benefit of patients. Fortunately, while it is clear from the interview that Dr. Desmond-Hellmann takes genuine conflicts of interest seriously, she has rejected the narrow-minded attitude that paints all industry ties as inherently corrupting:
"WSJ: What do you tell professors who won't work with drug or biotech companies?
"Ms. Desmond-Hellmann: I think that's a huge mistake. If you're a professor now, and you want to get your discovery to society, you either need to start a company or work with a company to commercialize a product. When professors have told me they won't work with companies anymore because they feel they'll have this scarlet letter, I think: 'Wouldn't that be sad if all the best scientists and clinicians won't work with companies because the public has said they're evil?'"
Unfortunately, the published interview is rather short, so Dr. Desmond-Hellmann is never asked to discuss her views on what exactly makes for a conflict of interest. We know, for example, that not all conflicts of interest involve money. The literature is full of examples in which such motivations as raw ambition, the desire to achieve research successes or to be the first to discover some phenomenon, or simply a basic fear of failure created conflicts that contributed to fraudulent research and/or harm to an otherwise innocent third party.
As medical ethicist Sigrid Fry-Revere puts it, a conflict of interest is any "clash of competing interests in which a socially sanctioned goal could potentially be compromised by a more personal goal. Conflicts of interest exist in every form of human interaction. Therefore, the question should be not whether conflicts exist, but whether relevant individuals will succumb to the temptation to satisfy more immediate personal desires at the expense of long-term personal benefit and long-term social goals."
In short, conflicts can never be eliminated, though they can and should be managed. And Susan Desmond-Hellmann should be congratulated for approaching the issue of conflicts with an open mind, for expressing an understanding that industry-academy relationships need to be monitored, and for realizing that the benefits of partnering with industry generally far outweigh the risks that might arise from conflicts of interest.